Content Analysis of Entrepreneurship Education in Primary and Secondary School Textbooks
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Textbook, Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneur, Employment, School

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Dorji, T. (2021). Content Analysis of Entrepreneurship Education in Primary and Secondary School Textbooks. Research in Educational Policy and Management, 3(1), 42-59.


Textbooks are the main source of teaching-learning materials used in primary and secondary schools. This study was carried out in Bhutan to examine if the existing textbooks in primary and secondary schools contain sufficient knowledge and skills in entrepreneurship education. This descriptive study collected 96 textbooks used by students and teachers in classes Pre-Primary (PP) to XII. The reviewers identified descriptions about entrepreneurship if any in the content and the pedagogical aspects. The content included the meaning of entrepreneurship, characteristics, student activity and images on entrepreneurship. The study revealed that entrepreneurship education is not thoroughly integrated into primary and secondary school textbooks. Three (3.1%) out of 96 textbooks contained descriptions about entrepreneurship. The study, therefore, recommends existing textbook contents and images on entrepreneurship education to be improved and experiential learning opportunities be included. Ministry of Education and the Royal Education Council needs to review and revise classes PP-XII existing school textbooks at various levels. Integrate entrepreneurship education-related topics in the existing textbooks of primary and secondary schools based on the current labour market needs. However, Media Information Literacy, Environmental Science, and Agriculture for Food Security textbooks were not analyzed since many schools did not offer these elective subjects due to no or poor ability rating for higher education admission in Bhutan.
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